Dementia is a complex disease and as such, there is no single test for dementia.
To receive a diagnosis, doctors and specialists use a combination of assessments and tests to help people with dementia get the appropriate treatment and support.
If dementia is diagnosed in the early stages and treated correctly, a patient can still lead an active and fulfilled life.
General practitioners, neurologists, geriatric psychiatrists, and other specialists employ the following tests to diagnose dementia:
Mental Ability Tests
These include cognitive and neuropsychological exams that are given to people with symptoms of dementia to determine their mental capacities, such as memory, thinking, reflexes, and the ability to solve simple problems.
Although cognitive testing cannot diagnose dementia on its own, it can evaluate and give an overall sense if further evaluation is needed.
Blood and Laboratory Tests
Blood tests are usually required by a general practitioner to determine causes of symptoms that may be dementia or another condition.
These tests include checking of liver, kidney, and thyroid functions, vitamin B12 and folate levels, as well as possibilities of diabetes via checking of haemoglobin A1c.
To investigate a suspected case of Alzheimer’s disease, medical professionals may request a lumbar puncture after other tests - such as a cognitive and blood tests - have taken place.
In Alzheimer’s disease there are abnormal levels of proteins called tau and amyloid in the brain. These proteins can be found in the cerebrospinal fluid and can be used to diagnose Alzheimer’s disease.
A lumbar puncture involves a special needle taking a sample of the cerebrospinal fluid from the lower back. This fluid flows around the spinal cord and the brain and levels of proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid can indicate Alzheimer’s disease.
These are used for diagnosing dementia after ruling out other possible diseases or complications. Brain scans are used as part of a wider assessment and can be used to check for other possible problems like a stroke or a brain tumour. MRI scans can help confirm a diagnosis of dementia, identify changes in the brain’s structure and function, as well as the type of disease causing it.
This helps doctors determine if depression or other mental health conditions are causing or contributing to a person’s symptoms. They include computerised tests and mood assessment to help doctors better understand cognitive difficulties experienced by a person.
Research shows certain genes may increase the risk of Alzheimer’s. A known gene defect can also cause some forms of dementia. Genetic tests can help doctors find out if a person is at risk for dementia. Talking with a genetic counsellor, family members and a doctor before and after a genetic test is important for your wellbeing.
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